Another simple example of utilizing Keras to predict a multi-classification problem. Details in the Jupyter notebook below.

### Keras / Tensorflow Basics II¶

#### An even better simple example¶

I'm going to be utilizing the `iris` dataset which is built into sklearn. This is a multi-classification problem in which 4 features are utilized to categorize one of 3 classes.

In [ ]:
```# Imports
import numpy as np
import pandas as pd
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
from sklearn.preprocessing import MinMaxScaler
from sklearn.metrics import confusion_matrix, classification_report,accuracy_score
from keras.models import Sequential
from keras.layers import Dense
from keras.utils import to_categorical
```

In :
```# Load the data from sklearn
```
In :
```# A little bit about this dataset
print(iris.DESCR)
```
```.. _iris_dataset:

Iris plants dataset
--------------------

**Data Set Characteristics:**

:Number of Instances: 150 (50 in each of three classes)
:Number of Attributes: 4 numeric, predictive attributes and the class
:Attribute Information:
- sepal length in cm
- sepal width in cm
- petal length in cm
- petal width in cm
- class:
- Iris-Setosa
- Iris-Versicolour
- Iris-Virginica

:Summary Statistics:

============== ==== ==== ======= ===== ====================
Min  Max   Mean    SD   Class Correlation
============== ==== ==== ======= ===== ====================
sepal length:   4.3  7.9   5.84   0.83    0.7826
sepal width:    2.0  4.4   3.05   0.43   -0.4194
petal length:   1.0  6.9   3.76   1.76    0.9490  (high!)
petal width:    0.1  2.5   1.20   0.76    0.9565  (high!)
============== ==== ==== ======= ===== ====================

:Missing Attribute Values: None
:Class Distribution: 33.3% for each of 3 classes.
:Creator: R.A. Fisher
:Donor: Michael Marshall (MARSHALL%[email protected])
:Date: July, 1988

The famous Iris database, first used by Sir R.A. Fisher. The dataset is taken
from Fisher's paper. Note that it's the same as in R, but not as in the UCI
Machine Learning Repository, which has two wrong data points.

This is perhaps the best known database to be found in the
pattern recognition literature.  Fisher's paper is a classic in the field and
is referenced frequently to this day.  (See Duda & Hart, for example.)  The
data set contains 3 classes of 50 instances each, where each class refers to a
type of iris plant.  One class is linearly separable from the other 2; the
latter are NOT linearly separable from each other.

.. topic:: References

- Fisher, R.A. "The use of multiple measurements in taxonomic problems"
Annual Eugenics, 7, Part II, 179-188 (1936); also in "Contributions to
Mathematical Statistics" (John Wiley, NY, 1950).
- Duda, R.O., & Hart, P.E. (1973) Pattern Classification and Scene Analysis.
(Q327.D83) John Wiley & Sons.  ISBN 0-471-22361-1.  See page 218.
- Dasarathy, B.V. (1980) "Nosing Around the Neighborhood: A New System
Structure and Classification Rule for Recognition in Partially Exposed
Environments".  IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine
Intelligence, Vol. PAMI-2, No. 1, 67-71.
- Gates, G.W. (1972) "The Reduced Nearest Neighbor Rule".  IEEE Transactions
on Information Theory, May 1972, 431-433.
- See also: 1988 MLC Proceedings, 54-64.  Cheeseman et al"s AUTOCLASS II
conceptual clustering system finds 3 classes in the data.
- Many, many more ...
```

#### Data transformation¶

In :
```# Set features
X = iris.data

# Set labels
y = iris.target
```
In :
```# One hot encode y values, transform from numerical 0,1,2
# We do this because output does not have correlation to ranking (class 0 is 'less' than class 1)
# Class 0 --> [1,0,0]
# Class 1 --> [0,1,0]
# Class 2 --> [0,0,1]

y = to_categorical(y)
y[0:3] #Sample print
```
Out:
```array([[1., 0., 0.],
[1., 0., 0.],
[1., 0., 0.]], dtype=float32)```

#### Build / Train Model¶

In :
```# Test / Train split
X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(X, y, test_size=0.33, random_state=42)
```
In :
```# Scale / Standardize data
scaler = MinMaxScaler()

# Fit to train
scaler.fit(X_train)

# Scale both training and testing X
scaled_X_train = scaler.transform(X_train)
# Not fitting here because we're assuming no prior knowledge of test
scaled_X_test = scaler.transform(X_test)
```
In :
```# I'm utilizing 16 neurons (4x the features)
# Moves down by half until the output, in which the neurons are equal to the number of categories
#  since this is a multi-class problem, and utilizes softmax

model = Sequential()

```
In :
```model.summary()
```
```Model: "sequential_2"
_________________________________________________________________
Layer (type)                 Output Shape              Param #
=================================================================
dense_5 (Dense)              (None, 16)                80
_________________________________________________________________
dense_6 (Dense)              (None, 8)                 136
_________________________________________________________________
dense_7 (Dense)              (None, 4)                 36
_________________________________________________________________
dense_8 (Dense)              (None, 3)                 15
=================================================================
Total params: 267
Trainable params: 267
Non-trainable params: 0
_________________________________________________________________
```
In :
```#Fit to model
model.fit(scaled_X_train,y_train,epochs=100,verbose=0)
```
Out:
`<keras.callbacks.callbacks.History at 0x7fb998d6cb50>`
In :
```# Grab predictions of testing data
predictions = model.predict_classes(scaled_X_test)
```
In :
```# Transform y_test to index position of [0,1,0] etc. - this becomes 1 and [0,0,1] becomes 2
# We do this so it matches the format of the predictions for comparison
y_test.argmax(axis=1)
```
Out:
```array([1, 0, 2, 1, 1, 0, 1, 2, 1, 1, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 2, 1, 1, 2, 0, 2,
0, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 0, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 0, 2, 1, 0, 0, 0, 2, 1, 1, 0,
0, 1, 2, 2, 1, 2])```

#### Determine effectiveness of model¶

In :
```confusion_matrix(y_test.argmax(axis=1),predictions)
```
Out:
```array([[19,  0,  0],
[ 0, 14,  1],
[ 0,  0, 16]])```
In :
```print(classification_report(y_test.argmax(axis=1),predictions))
```
```              precision    recall  f1-score   support

0       1.00      1.00      1.00        19
1       1.00      0.93      0.97        15
2       0.94      1.00      0.97        16

micro avg       0.98      0.98      0.98        50
macro avg       0.98      0.98      0.98        50
weighted avg       0.98      0.98      0.98        50

```
In :
```accuracy_score(y_test.argmax(axis=1),predictions)
```
Out:
`0.98`

A 99% accuracy, and the confusion matrix / classification reports look great 🙂