Just a little example on how to use the Support Vector Machines model in Python. Support Vector Machines simply separate or classify data based on groupings, by dividing up the surface into “hyperplanes” (if the data point is in hyperplane ‘A’, it’s most likely related to that cluster instead of the cluster in hyperplane ‘B’). Again – a very simplistic description, but it’s not terribly complex to understand at its highest level. A good description in detail can be located here. Interesting to note this can be calculated linearly and non-linearly (particularly in the third dimension). In this example we’re utilizing a cancer dataset that is provided within Scikit learn, and we’re going to predict values based on the “target” field therein. The dataset can be imported as shown in the code.

Support Vector Machines - Simple Example

I.E. predict values based on division of clustered data into "hyperplanes"

In this example we're utilizing a breast cancer dataset already present in the scikit learn library. We're going to predict if values fall in the 'target' field or not (present as a binary 0 or 1).

In [2]:
#Imports
import pandas as pd
import numpy as np
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import seaborn as sns
%matplotlib inline
In [4]:
#Import data
from sklearn.datasets import load_breast_cancer

cancer = load_breast_cancer()
In [7]:
#Some info on this dataset
print(cancer['DESCR'])
.. _breast_cancer_dataset:

Breast cancer wisconsin (diagnostic) dataset
--------------------------------------------

**Data Set Characteristics:**

    :Number of Instances: 569

    :Number of Attributes: 30 numeric, predictive attributes and the class

    :Attribute Information:
        - radius (mean of distances from center to points on the perimeter)
        - texture (standard deviation of gray-scale values)
        - perimeter
        - area
        - smoothness (local variation in radius lengths)
        - compactness (perimeter^2 / area - 1.0)
        - concavity (severity of concave portions of the contour)
        - concave points (number of concave portions of the contour)
        - symmetry
        - fractal dimension ("coastline approximation" - 1)

        The mean, standard error, and "worst" or largest (mean of the three
        worst/largest values) of these features were computed for each image,
        resulting in 30 features.  For instance, field 0 is Mean Radius, field
        10 is Radius SE, field 20 is Worst Radius.

        - class:
                - WDBC-Malignant
                - WDBC-Benign

    :Summary Statistics:

    ===================================== ====== ======
                                           Min    Max
    ===================================== ====== ======
    radius (mean):                        6.981  28.11
    texture (mean):                       9.71   39.28
    perimeter (mean):                     43.79  188.5
    area (mean):                          143.5  2501.0
    smoothness (mean):                    0.053  0.163
    compactness (mean):                   0.019  0.345
    concavity (mean):                     0.0    0.427
    concave points (mean):                0.0    0.201
    symmetry (mean):                      0.106  0.304
    fractal dimension (mean):             0.05   0.097
    radius (standard error):              0.112  2.873
    texture (standard error):             0.36   4.885
    perimeter (standard error):           0.757  21.98
    area (standard error):                6.802  542.2
    smoothness (standard error):          0.002  0.031
    compactness (standard error):         0.002  0.135
    concavity (standard error):           0.0    0.396
    concave points (standard error):      0.0    0.053
    symmetry (standard error):            0.008  0.079
    fractal dimension (standard error):   0.001  0.03
    radius (worst):                       7.93   36.04
    texture (worst):                      12.02  49.54
    perimeter (worst):                    50.41  251.2
    area (worst):                         185.2  4254.0
    smoothness (worst):                   0.071  0.223
    compactness (worst):                  0.027  1.058
    concavity (worst):                    0.0    1.252
    concave points (worst):               0.0    0.291
    symmetry (worst):                     0.156  0.664
    fractal dimension (worst):            0.055  0.208
    ===================================== ====== ======

    :Missing Attribute Values: None

    :Class Distribution: 212 - Malignant, 357 - Benign

    :Creator:  Dr. William H. Wolberg, W. Nick Street, Olvi L. Mangasarian

    :Donor: Nick Street

    :Date: November, 1995

This is a copy of UCI ML Breast Cancer Wisconsin (Diagnostic) datasets.
https://goo.gl/U2Uwz2

Features are computed from a digitized image of a fine needle
aspirate (FNA) of a breast mass.  They describe
characteristics of the cell nuclei present in the image.

Separating plane described above was obtained using
Multisurface Method-Tree (MSM-T) [K. P. Bennett, "Decision Tree
Construction Via Linear Programming." Proceedings of the 4th
Midwest Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science Society,
pp. 97-101, 1992], a classification method which uses linear
programming to construct a decision tree.  Relevant features
were selected using an exhaustive search in the space of 1-4
features and 1-3 separating planes.

The actual linear program used to obtain the separating plane
in the 3-dimensional space is that described in:
[K. P. Bennett and O. L. Mangasarian: "Robust Linear
Programming Discrimination of Two Linearly Inseparable Sets",
Optimization Methods and Software 1, 1992, 23-34].

This database is also available through the UW CS ftp server:

ftp ftp.cs.wisc.edu
cd math-prog/cpo-dataset/machine-learn/WDBC/

.. topic:: References

   - W.N. Street, W.H. Wolberg and O.L. Mangasarian. Nuclear feature extraction 
     for breast tumor diagnosis. IS&T/SPIE 1993 International Symposium on 
     Electronic Imaging: Science and Technology, volume 1905, pages 861-870,
     San Jose, CA, 1993.
   - O.L. Mangasarian, W.N. Street and W.H. Wolberg. Breast cancer diagnosis and 
     prognosis via linear programming. Operations Research, 43(4), pages 570-577, 
     July-August 1995.
   - W.H. Wolberg, W.N. Street, and O.L. Mangasarian. Machine learning techniques
     to diagnose breast cancer from fine-needle aspirates. Cancer Letters 77 (1994) 
     163-171.
In [8]:
#Convert to dataframe
df_feat = pd.DataFrame(cancer['data'],columns=cancer['feature_names'])
In [9]:
df_feat.head()
Out[9]:
mean radius mean texture mean perimeter mean area mean smoothness mean compactness mean concavity mean concave points mean symmetry mean fractal dimension ... worst radius worst texture worst perimeter worst area worst smoothness worst compactness worst concavity worst concave points worst symmetry worst fractal dimension
0 17.99 10.38 122.80 1001.0 0.11840 0.27760 0.3001 0.14710 0.2419 0.07871 ... 25.38 17.33 184.60 2019.0 0.1622 0.6656 0.7119 0.2654 0.4601 0.11890
1 20.57 17.77 132.90 1326.0 0.08474 0.07864 0.0869 0.07017 0.1812 0.05667 ... 24.99 23.41 158.80 1956.0 0.1238 0.1866 0.2416 0.1860 0.2750 0.08902
2 19.69 21.25 130.00 1203.0 0.10960 0.15990 0.1974 0.12790 0.2069 0.05999 ... 23.57 25.53 152.50 1709.0 0.1444 0.4245 0.4504 0.2430 0.3613 0.08758
3 11.42 20.38 77.58 386.1 0.14250 0.28390 0.2414 0.10520 0.2597 0.09744 ... 14.91 26.50 98.87 567.7 0.2098 0.8663 0.6869 0.2575 0.6638 0.17300
4 20.29 14.34 135.10 1297.0 0.10030 0.13280 0.1980 0.10430 0.1809 0.05883 ... 22.54 16.67 152.20 1575.0 0.1374 0.2050 0.4000 0.1625 0.2364 0.07678

5 rows × 30 columns

Split data into test/train and predict

In [12]:
#Import splitting library
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
In [13]:
#Set X,Y
X = df_feat
y = cancer['target']
In [14]:
#Choose the test size
#Test size = % of dataset allocated for testing (.3 = 30%)
#Random state = # of random splits
X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(X, y, test_size=0.3, random_state=101)
In [15]:
#Import library
from sklearn.svm import SVC
In [16]:
#Create object
model = SVC()
In [17]:
#Fit
model.fit(X_train,y_train)
Out[17]:
SVC()
In [18]:
#Predict
predictions = model.predict(X_test)
In [19]:
#See if the model worked, print reports (worked very well)
from sklearn.metrics import classification_report, confusion_matrix
In [20]:
print(confusion_matrix(y_test,predictions))
[[ 56  10]
 [  3 102]]
In [21]:
print(classification_report(y_test,predictions))
              precision    recall  f1-score   support

           0       0.95      0.85      0.90        66
           1       0.91      0.97      0.94       105

    accuracy                           0.92       171
   macro avg       0.93      0.91      0.92       171
weighted avg       0.93      0.92      0.92       171